Health (здоровье) – is the natural state of the body, is characterized by its steadiness to the environment and the lack of any pathological changes.
Human health is determined by a complex biological (genetic and acquired) and social factors; the past are so important in maintaining health or to the origin and development of the disease that the preamble of the Charter of the World Health Organization says: “Health – a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” However, such a broad sociological definition of health is somewhat controversial, as the social usefulness of a person does not always coincide with his biological condition.
In general, the concept of health is somewhat arbitrary and objectively established jointly anthropometric, clinical, physiological and biochemical parameters determined by taking into account gender, age factors, as well as climatic and geographical conditions.
Health should be characterized not only qualitatively but also quantitatively, as there is a concept of its extent, determined by the breadth of adaptation (adaptive) of the body. Although health is a state opposite to the disease[ru], it may be associated with it various transition states and not have clear boundaries.
Health status does not exclude the presence in the body has not yet manifested pathogenic start or fluctuations in subjective well-being. Due to these features, the notion “almost human health”, at which the pathological changes in the body do not affect the well-being and not reflected in human performance. However, lack of manifesting health disorders may not indicate the absence of the disease state, as overvoltage protective-adaptive mechanisms, without breaking health can lead to the development of the disease on the body when exposed to extreme irritants.
The factors determining the health of the population, include the value of real wages, working hours, the degree of intensity and working conditions, the presence of occupational hazards, the level and nature of food, housing, lifestyle, state of health and the health of the country. Unambiguous criterion by which one could judge the state of health of the inhabitants of a country, virtually non-existent; even such a complex index, as life expectancy, by itself, without taking into account the complex socio-biological research, is not sufficient to assess the west population. Scientific organization of health of individuals and human communities must be based on improving the protective properties of the body of people, as well as on creating conditions that prevent the possibility of human contact with different pathogenic stimuli, or to reduce their effects on the body.
Soviet health every effort to develop, maintain and strengthen human health. This was facilitated by a preventive nature of Soviet medicine, free, accessible and efficient treatment, a wide network of medical institutions, sanatoriums and rest homes, mass organization of physical culture and sports.