Death (смерть) – the cessation of functioning of the body and as a result – the death of the individual as an isolated living system, accompanied by the decomposition of proteins and other biopolymers, which are the main material substratum of life. At the heart of modern dialectical materialist ideas about death is the idea expressed by Friedrich Engels: “Even now do not consider the scientific physiology, which does not consider death as an essential aspect of life … that does not understand that the denial of life is essentially contained in life itself, so that life is always thought of in relation to its necessary result, we conclude that it is constantly in the bud – death “(Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Works, 2nd ed., g 20, p. 610).
Sometimes the concept of partial release of death, that is. E. The death of a group of cells, part or the whole body (necrosis). In unicellular organisms – simple – natural death of the individual is manifested in the form of division, since it is associated with the termination of the existence of the individual and the emergence of two new in its place. The death of an individual is usually accompanied by the formation of a corpse.
Depending on the causes of death, in the higher animals and humans are distinguished: natural death (also called physiological) occurring as a result of long-term, consistently developing fading of the basic vital functions of the body (see aging), and premature death (sometimes called pathological) causes painful condition of the body, injury to vital organs (brain, heart, lung, liver, and others.).
Premature death can be sudden, i.e. occur within minutes or even seconds (eg, myocardial). Violent death may be a consequence of an accident, suicide, homicide.
Death of warm-blooded animals and humans is associated with the termination primarily respiratory and circulatory. Therefore distinguish two main stages of death: the so-called clinical death and following the so-called biological or true. After a period of clinical death when still possible full recovery of vital functions, comes biological death – irreversible cessation of physiological processes in cells and tissues. All the processes associated with death, studying tanatologiya.
Clinical death – a terminal condition of the body, in which there are no visible signs of life extinguished the central nervous system, but saved the metabolic processes in the tissues. Clinical death takes a man a few minutes and goes to the biological death.
More details about the death read in the literature:
- Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov., Sketches of optimism, 4th ed., Moscow, 1917;
- Shmal’gauzen II, The problem of death and immortality, Moscow – Leningrad, 1926;
- Ilyin NA, modern science of life and death, Kish., 1955;
- Luntz AM, On the evolution of death in connection with the evolution of reproduction, “Journal of General Biology”, 1961, t. 22, №2;
- Polícar A., Bessie M., Elements of pathology cells per. with France., Moscow, 1970.