The doctor (врач) – a person with completed higher medical education (except dentists with secondary medical education) or higher veterinary education.
Physicians are trained medical school. Persons who have graduated from foreign medical school, physicians have the right to work in the USSR after the state examinations and examinations for those courses that are not taught in foreign schools. Persons who have experience of medical work, as well as persons with a scientific degree are admitted to medical work by special permission of the Ministry of Health [ru] (no exams).
Activities of physicians in a socialist state consists of curative and preventive work aimed at improving the environment, working and living conditions of the population. The doctor is guided by medical ethics, which includes the concept of the physician’s duty. Working in a hospital, the doctor must maintain patient confidentiality. It is the duty of the doctor – first aid. Soviet legislation criminalizes the failure to assist a patient unexcused persons obliged to provide such assistance under the law (the RSFSR Criminal Code, Art. 128). If the person did not have a medical staff necessary patient care in the performance of their duties, they are held accountable both for malfeasance. Doctors involved also in private practice, are required to register in a special book an overview of the patients, as well as all-purpose and manufactured manipulation.
Doctors in the field are divided into physicians (internal medicine), Pediatrics (pediatricians), surgeons, gynecologists (for women’s diseases), radiologists, neurologists (on nervous diseases), psychiatrists (for mental illness), dermatologists (for skin and venereal diseases ), dentists (for diseases of the mouth and teeth), otolaryngologists (ear disease, nose and throat), TB specialists (for tuberculosis), oncologists (for tumor diseases), trauma (for various injuries), orthopedic (on diseases of musculoskeletal motion), and others.
For proper use of physicians and improve their skills in the USSR practiced certification of doctors. Qualification is determined by a special commission. Higher qualification is assigned a doctor with experience in the profession for at least 10 years old, having a high theoretical and practical training. Depending on qualifications and seniority doctors set wages.
In capitalist countries, medical care is provided mainly by private practitioners; in some countries, certain types of medical care provided free of charge in hospitals owned or charities. (Y.I. Rodov.)
For more information about the specialty read in the literature:
- Artemyev FA, legislation on health management of the USSR, Moscow, 1955;
- N.A. Semashko, On Ethics Soviet doctor, “Hygiene and Sanitation”, 1945, № 1 – 2;
- Gruber G. V., Arzt und Ethik, B., 1956.