Life (жизнь) (hereinafter referred to as “L.”) is the highest compared to the physical and chemical form of existence of matter, arises under certain conditions in the process of its development. Living objects differ from nonliving metabolism — a prerequisite L., ability to reproduction, growth, active regulation of its composition and functions, to various forms of movement, irritability, adaptability to environment, etc.


However, strictly scientific differentiation of living and nonliving meets certain difficulties items. So, there is still no consensus about whether human viruses that are outside cells of the host organism does not possess any of the attributes of the living: in the virus particle at this time there are no metabolic processes, it is not able to reproduce, etc.

The specificity of living things and life processes can be described as aspect of their financial structure and key features, underlying all manifestations of L. the Most accurate definition of life, embracing simultaneously both of these approaches to the problem, given about 100 years ago, the German philosopher, thinker and public figure, founder of Marxism Friedrich Engels: “Life is the mode of existence of protein bodies, and this method of existence consists essentially in a constant renewal of the chemical component parts of these bodies” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 20, p. 82). The term “protein” had not yet been determined quite accurately and it is usually attributed to the protoplasm as a whole.– Далее –

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Physiological birth

Childbirth (роды) is a normal physiological act of a woman’s life.

Physiological birthWhen the fruit is right, when the size of his head does not exceed the size of the maternal pelvis, when the first deliveries taking place in a woman is not old, but at a young age, they occur most part almost painless, or with a little soreness, which is easily a woman carries.

If a woman obsessed with the fear of pain, even slightly bout it takes for the beginning of pains and preparing for something terrible, starts screaming. The next day she was unable to transmit their feelings, since forgotten about them, and her cry was just waiting for something terrible. In most cases, pain during childbirth is developing a sense of fear of childbirth, which is the result of secular education on the idea that a woman “gives birth in pain.” This view is embedded in the consciousness of a woman with a child and waiting for the meal, she was experiencing them in advance.

To get rid of the fear of childbirth, a woman should from the beginning to the end of pregnancy attending antenatal clinics. There she will tell all about the pregnancy, the physiology of childbirth, to soothe her. A woman should go to the maternity hospital with full confidence in the doctors [ru] and support staff who at the time of delivery will be with her, surrounding her with attention.

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heartHeart (сердце) – the central organ of the circulatory system in animals and humans, forcing blood into the arterial system and ensuring its movement through the vessels.

Circulatory system by cells and tissues of the body supplied with nutrients and oxygen, and removed from the products of metabolism. Therefore, the circulatory system is sometimes called the transport or distribution, system.

In humans, the heart is located in the thoracic cavity asymmetrically: 1/3 it is the right of the median plane of the body, 2/3 – on the left. The base of the heart facing up, back and to the right; tip – down, forward and to the left.

The rear surface of the heart adjacent to the diaphragm. Since it is surrounded on all sides with light, except for the front surface immediately adjacent to the chest wall (Fig. 1):– Далее –


Health (здоровье) – is the natural state of the body, is characterized by its steadiness to the environment and the lack of any pathological changes.

Health - description of the state of the organismHuman health is determined by a complex biological (genetic and acquired) and social factors; the past are so important in maintaining health or to the origin and development of the disease that the preamble of the Charter of the World Health Organization says: “Health – a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” However, such a broad sociological definition of health is somewhat controversial, as the social usefulness of a person does not always coincide with his biological condition.

In general, the concept of health is somewhat arbitrary and objectively established jointly anthropometric, clinical, physiological and biochemical parameters determined by taking into account gender, age factors, as well as climatic and geographical conditions.

Health should be characterized not only qualitatively but also quantitatively, as there is a concept of its extent, determined by the breadth of adaptation (adaptive) of the body. Although health is a state opposite to the disease[ru], it may be associated with it various transition states and not have clear boundaries.

Health status does not exclude the presence in the body has not yet manifested pathogenic start or fluctuations in subjective well-being. Due to these features, the notion “almost human health”, at which the pathological changes in the body do not affect the well-being and not reflected in human performance. However, lack of manifesting health disorders may not indicate the absence of the disease state, as overvoltage protective-adaptive mechanisms, without breaking health can lead to the development of the disease on the body when exposed to extreme irritants.

The factors determining the health of the population, include the value of real wages, working hours, the degree of intensity and working conditions, the presence of occupational hazards, the level and nature of food, housing, lifestyle, state of health and the health of the country. Unambiguous criterion by which one could judge the state of health of the inhabitants of a country, virtually non-existent; even such a complex index, as life expectancy, by itself, without taking into account the complex socio-biological research, is not sufficient to assess the west population. Scientific organization of health of individuals and human communities must be based on improving the protective properties of the body of people, as well as on creating conditions that prevent the possibility of human contact with different pathogenic stimuli, or to reduce their effects on the body.

Soviet health every effort to develop, maintain and strengthen human health. This was facilitated by a preventive nature of Soviet medicine, free, accessible and efficient treatment, a wide network of medical institutions, sanatoriums and rest homes, mass organization of physical culture and sports.

Eye – a description of the body

Eye (глаз) – an organ of perception of light stimulation in some invertebrates (in particular, cephalopods), all vertebrates and humans. Most invertebrates function of the eye are less complex organs of vision, such as compound eyes. In vertebrates, the eye pair, are located in their sockets of the skull – and orbits consist of your own eyes or eyeballs, connected through the optic nerve to the brain, eyes and paranasal parts: age (see. the lids), lacrimal apparatus and eye-motor muscles. All vertebrates have a common type of eye structure.

The structure of the eye

Eye - a description of the bodyThe eyeball has a spherical shape. The central point of the front surface of the eye called the anterior pole, a point located on the rear surface, in the place of origin of the optic nerve – the posterior pole. The line connecting the poles of the eye is taken for an anatomical axis, it coincides with the geometrical axis. In the front, facing the light of the eye is located diopter (light-refracting) apparatus (refractive media system, which includes the cornea (See. The cornea), a transparent lenticular lens – the lens, aqueous humor and filling the cavity of the eye vitreous, as well as serving to accommodate the ciliary body and iris, or the iris), transmitting the image on a photosensitive retina (See. Retin-A), or retina.

The wall of the back of the eyeball consists of three shells, tightly adjacent to each other. The dense outer shell – the sclera – has a supporting and protective value; it gives the eye shape being like a skeleton. At the open front side of the eye, the sclera becomes thin and transparent cornea. Under the sclera is richly endowed with blood vessels choroid, the front of which is in the form of a thin plate forms the iris, which has a hole in the middle – the pupil. In the tissue of the iris in most vertebrates are special muscles – sphincter and dilator that, expanding and narrowing the pupil to regulate entry into the eyes of the light rays, and the iris, ie. A., Plays the role of the diaphragm.

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The doctor (врач) – a person with completed higher medical education (except dentists with secondary medical education) or higher veterinary education.

(Article from the Russian “Great Soviet Encyclopedia”, punctuation in the original):

Physicians are trained medical school. Persons who have graduated from foreign medical school, physicians have the right to work in the USSR after the state examinations and examinations for those courses that are not taught in foreign schools. Persons who have experience of medical work, as well as persons with a scientific degree are admitted to medical work by special permission of the Ministry of Health [ru] (no exams).– Далее –


Death (смерть) – the cessation of functioning of the body and as a result – the death of the individual as an isolated living system, accompanied by the decomposition of proteins and other biopolymers, which are the main material substratum of life. At the heart of modern dialectical materialist ideas about death is the idea expressed by Friedrich Engels: “Even now do not consider the scientific physiology, which does not consider death as an essential aspect of life … that does not understand that the denial of life is essentially contained in life itself, so that life is always thought of in relation to its necessary result, we conclude that it is constantly in the bud – death “(Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Works, 2nd ed., g 20, p. 610).

Death description of the phenomenonSometimes the concept of partial release of death, that is. E. The death of a group of cells, part or the whole body (necrosis). In unicellular organisms – simple – natural death of the individual is manifested in the form of division, since it is associated with the termination of the existence of the individual and the emergence of two new in its place. The death of an individual is usually accompanied by the formation of a corpse.

Depending on the causes of death, in the higher animals and humans are distinguished: natural death (also called physiological) occurring as a result of long-term, consistently developing fading of the basic vital functions of the body (see aging), and premature death (sometimes called pathological) causes painful condition of the body, injury to vital organs (brain, heart, lung, liver, and others.).

Premature death can be sudden, i.e. occur within minutes or even seconds (eg, myocardial). Violent death may be a consequence of an accident, suicide, homicide.

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Treatment of neonatal ophthalmia

Ophthalmia neonatorum – purulent inflammation of the eye. At birth, the child should immediately wipe his eyes with a sterile swab, and then, after bathing, rub his eyes again cloth soaked in warm water and put drops in each eye one drop of 1% solution of silver nitrate. This is in order to protect your child’s eyes from possible infection after passage of the birth canal of the mother.

Treatment of neonatal ophthalmia

Purulent inflammation of the eye in the newborn (ophthalmia) is observed frequently.

Ophthalmia following symptoms: swelling and redness of the eyelids, eye discharge sticky pussy fluid.

When Infections can use the following medicines:

  • 1. Wipe clean with a child forever with a 2% solution of boric acid and remove purulent crusts clean cotton swab.
  • 2. Calendula. Take 1 teaspoon to 1 cup of boiling water. Leave for 30 minutes, cool, strain. In the form of heat applied to the eye in the form of compresses and lotions. Infusion can wash the eyes 2 times a day.
  • 3. Milk. Bury svezhestsezhennoe breast milk 2-3 drops in both eyes. 20-30 to wipe his eyes clean gauze or a cotton swab.
  • 4. Honey. Take 1 teaspoon of honey, boil 2 minutes in 200 ml of water. After cooling, make lotions in both eyes 2 times a day for 15 minutes. The same water instill 2 drops in each eye in the morning and evening.

In India, almost all eye diseases are treated with pure honey. Honey smeared eyes at night and in the morning thoroughly washed with clean boiled water or chamomile extract.

Ophthalmia – a description of the disease

Ophthalmia (the word comes from the Greek bl?nnos – mucus and rh?? – current, hereinafter – “O.”) – an acute purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane (conjunctiva), eye, caused by gonococcus.


There are 2 forms of ophthalmia: newborns and adults. Infection in most cases, neonatal ophthalmia occurs during the passage of the fetal head through the birth canal of the mother with gonorrhea. O. appears on 2 – 3rd day of life and is characterized by a very strong first edema of both eyelids after 2 – 3 days begins copious pus. In severe cases, the process may be involved in the cornea, formed ulcer healing scar and leave a thorn. In some cases, the disease leads to blindness.

Sometimes occurs in newborns like illness Infections caused by a virus. It develops, in contrast to O., not before the 5th day of life and flows more slowly and less severely, the cornea in the process is never involved.

Infection ophthalmia adults occurs when entering the eye with gonococcal urogenital hands, household items by patients suffering from gonorrhea. O. in adults is more severe than in infants, usually affected only one eye.

Treatment: frequent eye wash with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, antibiotics.

Prevention: the fight against gonorrhea urogenital tract. Newborn immediately after birth for ever let in both eyes, one drop of a 2% solution of silver nitrate or penicillin for adults – good personal hygiene. When a unilateral process is very important to prevent other eye disease [ru], for which the healthy [ru] eye pressure garment to wear a watch glass.

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