Life (жизнь) (hereinafter referred to as “L.”) is the highest compared to the physical and chemical form of existence of matter, arises under certain conditions in the process of its development. Living objects differ from nonliving metabolism — a prerequisite L., ability to reproduction, growth, active regulation of its composition and functions, to various forms of movement, irritability, adaptability to environment, etc.


However, strictly scientific differentiation of living and nonliving meets certain difficulties items. So, there is still no consensus about whether human viruses that are outside cells of the host organism does not possess any of the attributes of the living: in the virus particle at this time there are no metabolic processes, it is not able to reproduce, etc.

The specificity of living things and life processes can be described as aspect of their financial structure and key features, underlying all manifestations of L. the Most accurate definition of life, embracing simultaneously both of these approaches to the problem, given about 100 years ago, the German philosopher, thinker and public figure, founder of Marxism Friedrich Engels: “Life is the mode of existence of protein bodies, and this method of existence consists essentially in a constant renewal of the chemical component parts of these bodies” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 20, p. 82). The term “protein” had not yet been determined quite accurately and it is usually attributed to the protoplasm as a whole. (more…)

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Physiological birth

Childbirth (роды) is a normal physiological act of a woman’s life. When the fruit is right, when the size of his head does not exceed the size of the maternal pelvis, when the first deliveries taking place in a woman is not old, but at a young age, they occur most part almost painless, or … Continue reading


Heart (сердце) – the central organ of the circulatory system in animals and humans, forcing blood into the arterial system and ensuring its movement through the vessels. Circulatory system by cells and tissues of the body supplied with nutrients and oxygen, and removed from the products of metabolism. Therefore, the circulatory system is sometimes called the … Continue reading


Health (здоровье) – is the natural state of the body, is characterized by its steadiness to the environment and the lack of any pathological changes. Human health is determined by a complex biological (genetic and acquired) and social factors; the past are so important in maintaining health or to the origin and development of the disease … Continue reading

Eye – a description of the body

Eye (глаз) – an organ of perception of light stimulation in some invertebrates (in particular, cephalopods), all vertebrates and humans. Most invertebrates function of the eye are less complex organs of vision, such as compound eyes. In vertebrates, the eye pair, are located in their sockets of the skull – and orbits consist of your own … Continue reading


The doctor (врач) – a person with completed higher medical education (except dentists with secondary medical education) or higher veterinary education. (Article from the Russian “Great Soviet Encyclopedia”, punctuation in the original): Physicians are trained medical school. Persons who have graduated from foreign medical school, physicians have the right to work in the USSR after the … Continue reading


Death (смерть) – the cessation of functioning of the body and as a result – the death of the individual as an isolated living system, accompanied by the decomposition of proteins and other biopolymers, which are the main material substratum of life. At the heart of modern dialectical materialist ideas about death is the idea expressed … Continue reading

Treatment of neonatal ophthalmia

Ophthalmia neonatorum – purulent inflammation of the eye. At birth, the child should immediately wipe his eyes with a sterile swab, and then, after bathing, rub his eyes again cloth soaked in warm water and put drops in each eye one drop of 1% solution of silver nitrate. This is in order to protect your … Continue reading

Ophthalmia – a description of the disease

Ophthalmia (the word comes from the Greek bl?nnos – mucus and rh?? – current, hereinafter – “O.”) – an acute purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane (conjunctiva), eye, caused by gonococcus. There are 2 forms of ophthalmia: newborns and adults. Infection in most cases, neonatal ophthalmia occurs during the passage of the fetal head through … Continue reading