Tag: child

Feeding preterm infants

Feeding preterm infants in the neonatal period is critical. This task is quite difficult, because these children reduced tolerance to food. In addition, infants with severe prematurity are not only unable to take the breast, but also to suck from a bottle or pipette due to the immaturity of the sucking reflex. The difficulty lies in the fact that, along with low stamina to food there is an increased need for it. Such a child with an initial weight of 1800 g doubles its weight to 3 months, and 6 months to triple it. The rapid growth of these children require a lot more protein and minerals.

Feeding preterm

If the child takes the breast, it is applied to the chest. Since children tire quickly sucking, they should be applied to the chest of 3 to 5 times a day, then finish feeding with expressed breast milk from a bottle with a spoon, a pipette. If a child can not suck, then it is fed with a spoon, a pipette or a catheter, which should be entered only through the mouth 6-7 times a day. At ‘feeding a premature baby should gradually move from one mode to the other, more natural, from spoons to the pipette, and then to the dummy. When you see a good sucking movements can be applied to the child’s chest.

With a lack of breast milk from the mother’s best doctors are Expressed donor breast milk, diluted yogurt, infant formula. With poor weight gain is usually a mixture of enriched protein preparations: 2-4% aqueous cream, rubbed a few times (1/2 – 1 teaspoon of the bottle). Give to drink boiled water, 5% glucose solution. Cream of wheat and vegetables (pureed) usually begin to 4 months of life. Porridge cooked first 5%-ing. Children with signs of exudative diathesis useful semolina tenderize not on the water, and the vegetable broth, and then add the milk and let boil 2-3.

Starting with a 5-month diet can be supplemented with egg yolk. The yolk is recommended to give boiled for
1/41/2 tsp (add to mush).

First feeding preterm infants can begin within 6-8 hours after birth.

AF Tours recommends a feeding scheme in the first week of life: the initial weight of the child up to 1000 g – 10-15 feedings per day, with a weight of a child from 1000 to 1500 g – 10-12 feedings per day, with a weight of 1500 – 2000 – 8-11 feedings and weighs 2,000-2,500 g – 7-8 feedings.

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Clothes of the child on the first year of a life

The clothes of the child on the first year of a life should correspond not only to its growth, but also other physical data. For babies of the first months of a life diapers cotton (15-20 pieces) and flannel (5-6 pieces), gauze diapers (15-20 pieces) are necessary Some easy and flannel baby’s undershirts and in a smaller measure — kerchiefs and caps. From second month of a life the child requires toddlers (better with shoulder straps) which put on during wakefulness over a jacket used instead of a warm baby’s undershirt. It is very important not to muffle up the kid.

Baby clothing in 1 year

Houses at temperature 20-22 °С are not necessary to it a woollen cap, warm knitted jackets. If to the kid it is cold — his face turns pale, he starts to cry, when to it hot — integuments redden. It is possible to judge its condition more precisely, having felt a skin of a neck and arms above brushes. In a cold season of the child of the first months of a life for walk in the street or a dream on a balcony turn in cotton a blanket and, having put on a head a warm hat, put in a warm quilted envelope with which it is possible to replace with a blanket.

Revision of clothes of the child is required to 9-month’s age. Toddlers start to give way to stockings on elastic, not to hard elastic. Feet to the kid put on soft leather bootees. From 10-11 months when the child the walk part spends standing, the footwear which is not passing a moisture is required: leather bootees with a firm sole, shoes or boots of the corresponding size. For walks the warm jacket, outer clothing in the street are necessary. Are good knitted with napped or woollen suits, overalls. The coat during walk complicates movements of the kid. If the child has returned from walk not sweated, and arms and its feet remained warm, it is possible to consider, that he has been dressed correctly.

Development of the child from 1st till 12 months

In the end of 1st and in the beginning of 2nd month at the child conditioned reflexes start to be formed. It means that the cortex of a brain starts to ripen and sense organs are differentiated.

Development of the child

Formation of conditioned reflexes at children is bound exclusively with medium surrounding them, a regimen, care of them. As at the child of a cell of a cortex of a brain are developed insufficiently again formed reflexes at it are fragile and easily die away under the influence of strong stimuluses. If the child gets to an unusual situation for it it quite often loses the got skills. Unusual borings and impressions cause an excessive boring of a cortex of a brain and diffusion of this boring that is expressed in anxiety of the child, whims, crying, cry or block, slackness and drowsiness.

The newborn child almost all time sleeps. It is absolutely helpless, does not hold a head, not in a condition to change position of the body, randomly moves arms and feet. To the beginning of 2nd month the child starts to smile, look after bright, large subjects. In process of development of the central nervous system and a musculation the child from 5-6 weeks starts to hold a head, and by 2 months holds it already well and, laying on a back, can lift it, in position on a stomach watches moving subjects and turns behind them a head. At this time the child starts to react on pull, a smile and conversation — briskly moves, smiles.

On 3rd month any movements of arms, a head and feet begin: the child turns a head on a sound; laying on a stomach and leaning against elbows, lifts a head and the top part of a trunk; turns from a back sideways; opens a mouth at breast or small bottle approach; pulls subjects in a mouth, loudly laughs.

In 4 months the child sits with support. Laying on a stomach, freely rises, leaning against palms, turns from a back on a stomach, a beret and keeps subjects; it has the emotional reactions expressing pleasure or displeasure.

On 5th month the child sits, if it support, learns mum, takes confident subjects and pulls them in a mouth.

On 6th month it can turn over from a stomach on a back, tries to grabble, crosses feet if it support, swings a toy.

After 6 months the child independently sits, shows interest to surrounding, expresses a fright and pleasure, starts to utter the first syllables — «ba», «ma» (in Russia).

In 7 months he pulls a small bottle in a mouth, rises on knees, clinging to a bed backrest, says repeated syllables — «ba-ba», «ma-ma» etc.

From 8 months the child independently sits down, rises, keeping for something, well costs, finds eyes a named subject.

In 9 months well creeps, goes behind a trolley at support for arms.

In 10 months rises without support, goes behind a trolley or a chair, and sometimes starts to go independently, says the first simple words, names tersely subjects, for example «av» (dog), «mu» (cow), distinguishes tender and severe tone.

In 11—12 months the majority of children starts to go independently though also it is not quite confident. To the extremity of 1st year the perception of external impressions is shown by means of conditioned-reflex communications. In a brain cortex there is a difficult work. The difficult nervous system is gradually formed. The child shows taste to meal, chooses toys.

In the beginning of 2nd year the child carries out simple commissions: «lift a pillow», «close a door» and so forth, expresses the disagreement, allocates from a considerable quantity of toys especially favourite, it is accustomed to neatness.