Tag: thesaurus

Disease – description level of health

Disease (болезнь) – a process that occurs as a result of effects on the malicious (emergency) stimulus external or internal environment, characterized by reduced adaptability of the living organism to the environment with simultaneous mobilization of its defenses. DiseaseThe disease manifests itself disequilibrium with the environment, are expressed in the occurrence of side (inadequate) reactions and a man – a decline to the illness of his disability.

The development of a common understanding of disease changed over the history of medicine. The ancient Greek physician and reformer of ancient medicine Hippocrates cause of the disease is considered misuse of mixing four basic body fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile (venous blood). Around the same time, based on the atomistic theory of ancient Greek materialist philosopher Democritus, the idea arose that the disease develops as a result of changes in the shape of atoms and their incorrect arrangement. At the end of the old and the beginning of a new era, and especially in the Middle Ages, idealistic views on the doctrine of the disease, according to which the soul or a special kind of life force (“Archean”), defines the struggle of the body to changes caused by boleznfmi.

Materialistic views on the disease in the Middle Ages developed by Ibn Sina (occurrence of the disease under the influence of invisible beings, the role of the constitution of the body). In the 17th – 19th centuries, a great contribution to the study of the disease have an Italian physician and anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni (the thought of illness due to anatomical changes in the organs), a French doctor, one of the founders of Pathological Anatomy and Histology, Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (description of the pathologic picture series diseases), the German pathologist Rudolf Virchow (theory of cellular pathology), C. Bernard (disease – a violation of physiological equilibrium with the environment) and other Russian therapist Sergei Petrovich Botkin, founder Viktor Pashutin Pathophysiology, Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and therapist Alexey Ostroumov disease associated with violation of the conditions of human existence and developed the idea of the disease on the basis of ideas nervism.

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