Tag: premature

Characteristics of the disease in preterm infants

Premature babies, especially in the first months of life, the disease occur originally. Symptoms of many diseases [ru] and fuzzy weakly expressed at normal temperature. Disease in preterm infants If you have a premature baby fever, the reason for this we must first seek to overheating. Since immunity in premature infants sharply reduced, the various diseases they may take a protracted course, complicated by septic phenomena.

The most frequent diseases in these children in the first months of life are the flu, ear infection, pneumonia and diarrhea. In the first days of life, premature infants are particularly susceptible to the intracranial and spinal bleeding, as well as bleeding in the lungs, skin, adrenal glands, etc. Particular care should be protected from influenza. At a time of influenza epidemics to the child can be approached only in the mask or gauze bandage. If the mother is sick with influenza, the child should be fed expressed breast milk, and after recovery feeding mother should wear a mask.

Often in premature infants develop diseases such as anemia and rickets. Anemia occurs from the end of the first and beginning of the second month of life. With good care and proper diet anemic phenomena tend to disappear by 6-7 months of age. Specific prevention of rickets should start with 2 weeks of age: 2-2.5 months to provide 1,000 units of vitamin D a day, and in the future to 4000-6000 units. Fish oil yield from 2 months, first in drops, and by 4-5 months to 1 teaspoon 1-2 times a day. To prevent rickets also shown exposure mercury-quartz lamp. Timely prevention of rickets but not always warns his appearance, but provides a mild course of disease.

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Feeding preterm infants

Feeding preterm infants in the neonatal period is critical. This task is quite difficult, because these children reduced tolerance to food. In addition, infants with severe prematurity are not only unable to take the breast, but also to suck from a bottle or pipette due to the immaturity of the sucking reflex. The difficulty lies in the fact that, along with low stamina to food there is an increased need for it. Such a child with an initial weight of 1800 g doubles its weight to 3 months, and 6 months to triple it. The rapid growth of these children require a lot more protein and minerals.

Feeding preterm

If the child takes the breast, it is applied to the chest. Since children tire quickly sucking, they should be applied to the chest of 3 to 5 times a day, then finish feeding with expressed breast milk from a bottle with a spoon, a pipette. If a child can not suck, then it is fed with a spoon, a pipette or a catheter, which should be entered only through the mouth 6-7 times a day. At ‘feeding a premature baby should gradually move from one mode to the other, more natural, from spoons to the pipette, and then to the dummy. When you see a good sucking movements can be applied to the child’s chest.

With a lack of breast milk from the mother’s best doctors are Expressed donor breast milk, diluted yogurt, infant formula. With poor weight gain is usually a mixture of enriched protein preparations: 2-4% aqueous cream, rubbed a few times (1/2 – 1 teaspoon of the bottle). Give to drink boiled water, 5% glucose solution. Cream of wheat and vegetables (pureed) usually begin to 4 months of life. Porridge cooked first 5%-ing. Children with signs of exudative diathesis useful semolina tenderize not on the water, and the vegetable broth, and then add the milk and let boil 2-3.

Starting with a 5-month diet can be supplemented with egg yolk. The yolk is recommended to give boiled for
1/41/2 tsp (add to mush).

First feeding preterm infants can begin within 6-8 hours after birth.

AF Tours recommends a feeding scheme in the first week of life: the initial weight of the child up to 1000 g – 10-15 feedings per day, with a weight of a child from 1000 to 1500 g – 10-12 feedings per day, with a weight of 1500 – 2000 – 8-11 feedings and weighs 2,000-2,500 g – 7-8 feedings.

Caring for premature babies

Environmental conditions and proper maintenance are important in preserving life premature baby. When properly organized care premature infants in the first days of life is well developed, and by the end of the first year of their weight increased by 5-7 times. First we need to monitor the condition of the premises in which the premature infant. Floor should be cleaned 3-4 times a day, room air 5-7 times. Under no circumstances should there be in a room where the new-born adults with symptoms of influenza, acute respiratory illness. For premature infants is equally dangerous as cooling and overheating. Temperature due to overheating, a child may rise to 37-38 °C, hypothermia – lowered to 35 °C. At home, to warm the child has to use conventional heaters. Hot water bottle filled halfway with hot water, tightly closed and placed near the child from the sides and legs. They have to change every 3-4 hours. Do not put a heating pad on the chest and abdomen of the child, it is very difficult to breath.

Care for premature babiesThe temperature in the room where the premature infant, shall be kept at 22-24 °C. Under the blanket thermometer should read 30-33 °C. Subsequently, the room temperature can be lowered to 20 °C. We must not forget that the ventilation, at a time when the open window, the child should be carried out of the room. Ordinary clothes, which are sold for infants, preterm baby will not do. For him to make a jacket with a hood, a cap put a layer of cotton wool, make vests with closed sleeves, boots made of cotton. In addition, the kit includes the child diaper flannelette diapers, blanket and envelope.

Often parents have a question: to what age should a specially warm premature babies? This question is answered the doctor [ru]. But, as a rule, a premature baby needs additional warming in the first month of life. Later it gradually unwrap: first remove the envelope, and then cease to wrap in a warm blanket, put hot water bottles, put on a jacket-hood.

Premature babies need to bathe at a water temperature 38-39 °C and an ambient temperature not lower than 23-24 °C. Duration swimming 4-5 minutes. Laundry, which is put on the child, and bed sheet must first be warm.
Walking in the fresh air, we can start with the 2nd month of life. First child endure for 5-10 minutes, long walks in the future gradually extend up to 2 h, 2 times a day. Walking in the cold season, allowed only after the child reaches the weight of 3 kg.

Premature babies shows exposure mercury-quartz lamp after the two-month-old, massage, giving vitamin A and C.

With proper care of their premature babies catch up with their peers by the end of the first year.

Premature babies

Child called premature if born before the end of fetal weight below 2500 g, and a body length of less than 45 cm Medical Statistics notes that there were many cases when it was possible to save the life of a child born weighing 900 and even 600 g.

Premature babies

With this weight and height functions of all premature infants are underdeveloped, so to extrauterine existence of a child is ill suited. Premature infants, along with general weakness broken thermotaxis. These children are equally fast temperature can rise to 40 °C or drop to 35 °C. The lower weight of the child, the more he pronounced instability of body temperature and its tendency to volatility. Breath-preterm infants surface, there is a tendency to asphyxia (suffocation). Due to the fact that the immunity of their sharply reduced, the most common disease in these children in the first months of life are respiratory tract infections.

The causes of prematurity may be a chronic inflammatory disease of female uterus and ovaries, multiple pregnancy, severe infectious diseases in pregnancy, mental or physical trauma. Has a definite value malnutrition of the mother during pregnancy, lack of in her diet of vitamins C, E and A.

Premature infants, except for a low weight and small stature, distinguished features such as the weak development of the subcutaneous fat, the skin is not elastic and newborn covered embryonic hair. Easily movable skull bones, small fontanelle is almost always open, large fontanelle due to displacement of the bones may be less than usual.