Tag: children

Feeding preterm infants

Feeding preterm infants in the neonatal period is critical. This task is quite difficult, because these children reduced tolerance to food. In addition, infants with severe prematurity are not only unable to take the breast, but also to suck from a bottle or pipette due to the immaturity of the sucking reflex. The difficulty lies in the fact that, along with low stamina to food there is an increased need for it. Such a child with an initial weight of 1800 g doubles its weight to 3 months, and 6 months to triple it. The rapid growth of these children require a lot more protein and minerals.

Feeding preterm

If the child takes the breast, it is applied to the chest. Since children tire quickly sucking, they should be applied to the chest of 3 to 5 times a day, then finish feeding with expressed breast milk from a bottle with a spoon, a pipette. If a child can not suck, then it is fed with a spoon, a pipette or a catheter, which should be entered only through the mouth 6-7 times a day. At ‘feeding a premature baby should gradually move from one mode to the other, more natural, from spoons to the pipette, and then to the dummy. When you see a good sucking movements can be applied to the child’s chest.

With a lack of breast milk from the mother’s best doctors are Expressed donor breast milk, diluted yogurt, infant formula. With poor weight gain is usually a mixture of enriched protein preparations: 2-4% aqueous cream, rubbed a few times (1/2 – 1 teaspoon of the bottle). Give to drink boiled water, 5% glucose solution. Cream of wheat and vegetables (pureed) usually begin to 4 months of life. Porridge cooked first 5%-ing. Children with signs of exudative diathesis useful semolina tenderize not on the water, and the vegetable broth, and then add the milk and let boil 2-3.

Starting with a 5-month diet can be supplemented with egg yolk. The yolk is recommended to give boiled for
1/41/2 tsp (add to mush).

First feeding preterm infants can begin within 6-8 hours after birth.

AF Tours recommends a feeding scheme in the first week of life: the initial weight of the child up to 1000 g – 10-15 feedings per day, with a weight of a child from 1000 to 1500 g – 10-12 feedings per day, with a weight of 1500 – 2000 – 8-11 feedings and weighs 2,000-2,500 g – 7-8 feedings.

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Hygiene of the newborn

In the house of the newborn it is necessary to be prepared for occurrence carefully. If it is not possible to make apartment face lifting general cleaning is obligatory. For normal development and creation of the best hygienic conditions, to the child, it is as though small was, in apartment own corner where its bed, a table with leaving subjects would take places, a bedside table with personal things is necessary. This place should be the most light, free from unnecessary for care of the child of things and subjects. That sunlight was less, parents often hang up dense curtains and curtains on windows. To do it it is not recommended — the sun for the child as it is necessary, as cleanliness of a premise, air, linen, ware.

Hygiene of the newborn

Before for the first time putting the child in a bed, it should be washed up well warm water with soap and further to wash weekly. The bed of the child should be equal, a mattress — rigid, not caving in under gravity of the kid (the bent position is very harmful to its not strong skeleton.). The pillow during first time is absolutely not necessary. It is possible to use small flat (not down) a small pillow later. A mattress on three quarters cover with an oilcloth, and from above a bed-sheet. It is not necessary to veil a bed a bed curtains or a curtain as it breaks ventilation of air and, besides, deprives of the child of light so necessary for it. In order to avoid diseases of a skin and infection with infectious diseases it is impossible to put the child in bed with other children or adults. It is necessary to remember, that healthy [ru] adult children can be carriers of bacteria which do not cause disease in them, but can be dangerous to children of early age. It is not recommended to use instead of a bed a low carriage, since. Rising at walking of adults the dust from a floor gets on the child, and in a dust microbes which can be dangerous to the newborn contain. Everything to what the child adjoins, should contain in the strict cleanliness.

Near to a cot put a low convenient locker which can simultaneously serve and table for swaddle, and a place where the linen of the child is stored. To a wall it is necessary to beat a shelf. In a case and on a regiment place the subjects necessary for care by the child: a tray for bathing; a jug for water; thermometers for measurement of a body temperature, water, a premise; a soft bast; scissors; a crest; children’s soap; a towel; the graduated small bottles; a heater; tank for a clyster; a jar with cotton wool; eyedroppers; boiled vaseline or vegetable oil; disinfectants, (manganese-manganese a potassium), baking soda. It is possible to take advantage also of specially completed first-aid set of mother and the child.

It is necessary to prepare necessary linen which should be stored on a regiment in a locker for a birth of the child. The dirty children’s linen should be stored separately from linen of adults in a bucket or a tank with a cover. To erase linen of the child also it is necessary separately. It is recommended to do washing so: to presoak linen in cold water, to wash off the soiled places, then within an hour to boil in soap water then to rinse at first in warm, and then some times in cold water. The linen is better for drying on air, and then to iron a hot iron from both parties.

The child, especially in the first month of a life, it is necessary to preserve against infections carefully. It is undesirable to kiss it on the person or arms, since. Microbes which are available for adults, can cause a serious infectious disease [ru] in the newborn. The organism of the child of the first month of a life is very acquisitive to infections, therefore it should be protected from dialogue with extraneous people: not to invite them in a room where there is a child, and not to visit with it.

The big danger to the child is represented by baby’s dummies which many mothers use. The healthy full child usually does not shout, if it is convenient to it to lay and if it dry. Gases or hard diaper can be the anxiety reason. It is necessary to find out the anxiety reason, instead of to give a baby’s dummy. If it is necessary to resort to a baby’s dummy it should be boiled (insufficiently only to wash a baby’s dummy boiled water) and to store in the boiled, pure closed glass or a glass jar.

The room where there is a child, should be kept clean and daily be cleaned. In no event it is impossible to sweep a floor with a dry brush or a broom, since. At such way of cleaning in air the dust which settles on the person of the kid, clothes, bed rises. At breath a dust, and with it and microbes, get to its lungs. Cleaning in a room where there is a child, should be only wet. It is recommended to wipe 2 times a day a floor a wet rag and to wipe a dust from furniture. To air a room it is necessary each 2 hours till 10-15 mines in the winter and it is obligatory before a night dream. In the summer of a window it is better to hold opened, but tightened by a grid from flies and mosquitoes. Optimum temperature of air in a room for children of the first months of a life — 20-22 °С. In hot heated room natural protective reactions and forces of the child quickly weaken, he easily catches a cold, feels chilly on air more likely. In a room of the child smoking unconditionally is forbidden, drying of children’s linen is not recommended also.

Development of the child from 1st till 12 months

In the end of 1st and in the beginning of 2nd month at the child conditioned reflexes start to be formed. It means that the cortex of a brain starts to ripen and sense organs are differentiated.

Development of the child

Formation of conditioned reflexes at children is bound exclusively with medium surrounding them, a regimen, care of them. As at the child of a cell of a cortex of a brain are developed insufficiently again formed reflexes at it are fragile and easily die away under the influence of strong stimuluses. If the child gets to an unusual situation for it it quite often loses the got skills. Unusual borings and impressions cause an excessive boring of a cortex of a brain and diffusion of this boring that is expressed in anxiety of the child, whims, crying, cry or block, slackness and drowsiness.

The newborn child almost all time sleeps. It is absolutely helpless, does not hold a head, not in a condition to change position of the body, randomly moves arms and feet. To the beginning of 2nd month the child starts to smile, look after bright, large subjects. In process of development of the central nervous system and a musculation the child from 5-6 weeks starts to hold a head, and by 2 months holds it already well and, laying on a back, can lift it, in position on a stomach watches moving subjects and turns behind them a head. At this time the child starts to react on pull, a smile and conversation — briskly moves, smiles.

On 3rd month any movements of arms, a head and feet begin: the child turns a head on a sound; laying on a stomach and leaning against elbows, lifts a head and the top part of a trunk; turns from a back sideways; opens a mouth at breast or small bottle approach; pulls subjects in a mouth, loudly laughs.

In 4 months the child sits with support. Laying on a stomach, freely rises, leaning against palms, turns from a back on a stomach, a beret and keeps subjects; it has the emotional reactions expressing pleasure or displeasure.

On 5th month the child sits, if it support, learns mum, takes confident subjects and pulls them in a mouth.

On 6th month it can turn over from a stomach on a back, tries to grabble, crosses feet if it support, swings a toy.

After 6 months the child independently sits, shows interest to surrounding, expresses a fright and pleasure, starts to utter the first syllables — «ba», «ma» (in Russia).

In 7 months he pulls a small bottle in a mouth, rises on knees, clinging to a bed backrest, says repeated syllables — «ba-ba», «ma-ma» etc.

From 8 months the child independently sits down, rises, keeping for something, well costs, finds eyes a named subject.

In 9 months well creeps, goes behind a trolley at support for arms.

In 10 months rises without support, goes behind a trolley or a chair, and sometimes starts to go independently, says the first simple words, names tersely subjects, for example «av» (dog), «mu» (cow), distinguishes tender and severe tone.

In 11—12 months the majority of children starts to go independently though also it is not quite confident. To the extremity of 1st year the perception of external impressions is shown by means of conditioned-reflex communications. In a brain cortex there is a difficult work. The difficult nervous system is gradually formed. The child shows taste to meal, chooses toys.

In the beginning of 2nd year the child carries out simple commissions: «lift a pillow», «close a door» and so forth, expresses the disagreement, allocates from a considerable quantity of toys especially favourite, it is accustomed to neatness.

The basic periods of the children’s age

The children’s stage of development of the person (Основные периоды детского возраста) can be parted for following periods:

  • 1. The period of a pre-natal fetation.
  • 2. The period newborn.
  • 3. The thoracal period.
  • 4. The period of a milk teeth.
  • 5. The adolescence period.
  • 6. Description puberty period (boys and girls).

Periods of the children's age

The period of a pre-natal fetation lasts on the average 270 days. At this time there is exclusively a foetus rapid growth, the basic functional and morphological features of the child are pawned and formed. Therefore high-grade development of the future newborn depends appreciably on a state of health [ru] of mother, it deliveries, a way of life, a psychological condition, an exercise stress! The conditions of a life of mother during this period are more favorable, the the child will be more healthy. Alcohol, strong tea, coffee, too acute and spicy dishes should be completely excluded from a food of mother.

The period newborn is the period of the adaptation of the child to new conditions of a life. It begins after sorts from the moment of a dressing of a cord and 18-24 days last.

From the moment of a birth in an organism of the child there is variety of changes: there is a pulmonary breath, there is a circulation reorganisation, suction and digestion processes begin, the energy exchange changes, the basic exchange raises.

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Notice to parents

Dear parents – mums and daddies!

Before you will treat the child, read please these rules and observe them!

Notice to parents

1. Do not treat the child grasses and do not resort to treatment by folk remedies without consultation of the doctor-pediatrist.

2. Do not undertake in house conditions treatment of such serious diseases, as a pneumonia, an infectious disease, a meningitis, an encephalitis, etc.

3. Do not apply treatment by grasses, infusions, broths to children who have not reached 5-6-year age.

4. Do not apply to treatment of children toxicant and strong grasses and plants.

5. Do not use for treatment of children the plants collected at roads, near to factories and factories, in city boundaries.

6. Do not apply to treatment of children somewhere the heard, unchecked prescriptions.

7. Do not forget, that it is necessary to give any medicine to the child with love and caress, but not violently, with cry and threats.