Category: Thesaurus

Description of terms, articles about the importance of a concept


Life (жизнь) (hereinafter referred to as “L.”) is the highest compared to the physical and chemical form of existence of matter, arises under certain conditions in the process of its development. Living objects differ from nonliving metabolism — a prerequisite L., ability to reproduction, growth, active regulation of its composition and functions, to various forms of movement, irritability, adaptability to environment, etc.


However, strictly scientific differentiation of living and nonliving meets certain difficulties items. So, there is still no consensus about whether human viruses that are outside cells of the host organism does not possess any of the attributes of the living: in the virus particle at this time there are no metabolic processes, it is not able to reproduce, etc.

The specificity of living things and life processes can be described as aspect of their financial structure and key features, underlying all manifestations of L. the Most accurate definition of life, embracing simultaneously both of these approaches to the problem, given about 100 years ago, the German philosopher, thinker and public figure, founder of Marxism Friedrich Engels: “Life is the mode of existence of protein bodies, and this method of existence consists essentially in a constant renewal of the chemical component parts of these bodies” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 20, p. 82). The term “protein” had not yet been determined quite accurately and it is usually attributed to the protoplasm as a whole.– Далее –

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heartHeart (сердце) – the central organ of the circulatory system in animals and humans, forcing blood into the arterial system and ensuring its movement through the vessels.

Circulatory system by cells and tissues of the body supplied with nutrients and oxygen, and removed from the products of metabolism. Therefore, the circulatory system is sometimes called the transport or distribution, system.

In humans, the heart is located in the thoracic cavity asymmetrically: 1/3 it is the right of the median plane of the body, 2/3 – on the left. The base of the heart facing up, back and to the right; tip – down, forward and to the left.

The rear surface of the heart adjacent to the diaphragm. Since it is surrounded on all sides with light, except for the front surface immediately adjacent to the chest wall (Fig. 1):– Далее –


Health (здоровье) – is the natural state of the body, is characterized by its steadiness to the environment and the lack of any pathological changes.

Health - description of the state of the organismHuman health is determined by a complex biological (genetic and acquired) and social factors; the past are so important in maintaining health or to the origin and development of the disease that the preamble of the Charter of the World Health Organization says: “Health – a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” However, such a broad sociological definition of health is somewhat controversial, as the social usefulness of a person does not always coincide with his biological condition.

In general, the concept of health is somewhat arbitrary and objectively established jointly anthropometric, clinical, physiological and biochemical parameters determined by taking into account gender, age factors, as well as climatic and geographical conditions.

Health should be characterized not only qualitatively but also quantitatively, as there is a concept of its extent, determined by the breadth of adaptation (adaptive) of the body. Although health is a state opposite to the disease[ru], it may be associated with it various transition states and not have clear boundaries.

Health status does not exclude the presence in the body has not yet manifested pathogenic start or fluctuations in subjective well-being. Due to these features, the notion “almost human health”, at which the pathological changes in the body do not affect the well-being and not reflected in human performance. However, lack of manifesting health disorders may not indicate the absence of the disease state, as overvoltage protective-adaptive mechanisms, without breaking health can lead to the development of the disease on the body when exposed to extreme irritants.

The factors determining the health of the population, include the value of real wages, working hours, the degree of intensity and working conditions, the presence of occupational hazards, the level and nature of food, housing, lifestyle, state of health and the health of the country. Unambiguous criterion by which one could judge the state of health of the inhabitants of a country, virtually non-existent; even such a complex index, as life expectancy, by itself, without taking into account the complex socio-biological research, is not sufficient to assess the west population. Scientific organization of health of individuals and human communities must be based on improving the protective properties of the body of people, as well as on creating conditions that prevent the possibility of human contact with different pathogenic stimuli, or to reduce their effects on the body.

Soviet health every effort to develop, maintain and strengthen human health. This was facilitated by a preventive nature of Soviet medicine, free, accessible and efficient treatment, a wide network of medical institutions, sanatoriums and rest homes, mass organization of physical culture and sports.

Eye – a description of the body

Eye (глаз) – an organ of perception of light stimulation in some invertebrates (in particular, cephalopods), all vertebrates and humans. Most invertebrates function of the eye are less complex organs of vision, such as compound eyes. In vertebrates, the eye pair, are located in their sockets of the skull – and orbits consist of your own eyes or eyeballs, connected through the optic nerve to the brain, eyes and paranasal parts: age (see. the lids), lacrimal apparatus and eye-motor muscles. All vertebrates have a common type of eye structure.

The structure of the eye

Eye - a description of the bodyThe eyeball has a spherical shape. The central point of the front surface of the eye called the anterior pole, a point located on the rear surface, in the place of origin of the optic nerve – the posterior pole. The line connecting the poles of the eye is taken for an anatomical axis, it coincides with the geometrical axis. In the front, facing the light of the eye is located diopter (light-refracting) apparatus (refractive media system, which includes the cornea (See. The cornea), a transparent lenticular lens – the lens, aqueous humor and filling the cavity of the eye vitreous, as well as serving to accommodate the ciliary body and iris, or the iris), transmitting the image on a photosensitive retina (See. Retin-A), or retina.

The wall of the back of the eyeball consists of three shells, tightly adjacent to each other. The dense outer shell – the sclera – has a supporting and protective value; it gives the eye shape being like a skeleton. At the open front side of the eye, the sclera becomes thin and transparent cornea. Under the sclera is richly endowed with blood vessels choroid, the front of which is in the form of a thin plate forms the iris, which has a hole in the middle – the pupil. In the tissue of the iris in most vertebrates are special muscles – sphincter and dilator that, expanding and narrowing the pupil to regulate entry into the eyes of the light rays, and the iris, ie. A., Plays the role of the diaphragm.

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The doctor (врач) – a person with completed higher medical education (except dentists with secondary medical education) or higher veterinary education.

(Article from the Russian “Great Soviet Encyclopedia”, punctuation in the original):

Physicians are trained medical school. Persons who have graduated from foreign medical school, physicians have the right to work in the USSR after the state examinations and examinations for those courses that are not taught in foreign schools. Persons who have experience of medical work, as well as persons with a scientific degree are admitted to medical work by special permission of the Ministry of Health [ru] (no exams).– Далее –

Ophthalmia – a description of the disease

Ophthalmia (the word comes from the Greek bl?nnos – mucus and rh?? – current, hereinafter – “O.”) – an acute purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane (conjunctiva), eye, caused by gonococcus.


There are 2 forms of ophthalmia: newborns and adults. Infection in most cases, neonatal ophthalmia occurs during the passage of the fetal head through the birth canal of the mother with gonorrhea. O. appears on 2 – 3rd day of life and is characterized by a very strong first edema of both eyelids after 2 – 3 days begins copious pus. In severe cases, the process may be involved in the cornea, formed ulcer healing scar and leave a thorn. In some cases, the disease leads to blindness.

Sometimes occurs in newborns like illness Infections caused by a virus. It develops, in contrast to O., not before the 5th day of life and flows more slowly and less severely, the cornea in the process is never involved.

Infection ophthalmia adults occurs when entering the eye with gonococcal urogenital hands, household items by patients suffering from gonorrhea. O. in adults is more severe than in infants, usually affected only one eye.

Treatment: frequent eye wash with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, antibiotics.

Prevention: the fight against gonorrhea urogenital tract. Newborn immediately after birth for ever let in both eyes, one drop of a 2% solution of silver nitrate or penicillin for adults – good personal hygiene. When a unilateral process is very important to prevent other eye disease [ru], for which the healthy [ru] eye pressure garment to wear a watch glass.

Anemia – a description of the disease

Anemia (derived from the Greek an – negative particle and h?ima – blood, hereinafter – “A.”) – is anemia, a group of diseases characterized by reduced hemoglobin content in red blood cells (dye blood carries oxygen), the number of red blood cells per unit volume human blood given gender and age, and the total weight of blood in the human body. AnemiaA number of causes painful changes due to impaired supply of oxygen. The intensity of these symptoms depends on the degree of anemia and on the speed of its development.

The most important general symptoms of anemia – fatigue, pale skin, shortness of breath, dizziness, tendency to faint. A. caused by three main factors: blood loss, impaired hematopoiesis, and increased kroverazrushenie.

A. associated with acute blood loss develops with wounds, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, nasal, uterine, less renal hemorrhage. A. At this suddenly appear sharp pallor, dizziness, tinnitus, thirst. It will not be life-threatening conditions, one should immediately stop bleeding that often requires surgical intervention, use styptics, blood transfusions.

A common cause of anemia – deficiency in iron, so iron is called A. Iron is part of hemoglobin and red blood cell enzymes involved in cellular respiration and is almost out of the body. Iron deficiency is caused by a small, but frequent blood loss (heavy and prolonged menstrual periods, bleeding hemorrhoids, etc.). A. very often this develops, if chronic blood loss combined with reduced secretion of gastric juice, which can reduce the absorption of iron in food. A. iron deficiency often occurs in children in the first year if the mother lacked the iron in the body. A. the same form is sometimes found in premature infants who did not manage to obtain the necessary amount of iron from the mother. A. iron deficiency may develop during puberty in girls born to mothers with iron deficiency in the body – juvenile chlorosis (“chlorosis” greensickness). For chlorosis, in addition to general attributes, A., characteristic hair loss, brittle nails, taste perversion (the desire to eat chalk, tooth powder, coal, slate from pencils), micturition disorders (bed wetting, frequent urge to urinate). Treatments for iron A. conduct various preparations of iron in combination with ascorbic acid (in this combination are better absorbed).

There are forms of anemia in which the body enough iron, but it is not fully used for the formation of hemoglobin due to the decreased activity of enzymes that form hemoglobin (sideroahresticheskaya A.). A. These are hereditary or associated with lead poisoning. When these forms of A. has a curative effect vitamin B6. Treats lead poisoning. Violation of blood formation is observed with a deficiency of vitamin B12 (vitamin deficiency B12, anemia Addison – Biermer, old name – A pernicious, pernicious anemia). A. the reason for this – a violation of the stomach making a special protein – gastromukoproteina (biermerin) providing intestinal absorption of vitamin B12. A lack of vitamin B12 in the body may be in patients who in the past has been removed the entire stomach, and also in patients with parasitic infestations, particularly broad tapeworm. When B12 vitamin deficiency in the body is disturbed formation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) needed for cell reproduction. As a result of broken blood, red blood cells increase in size, their number in blood volume decreases. Due to the increase of the epithelial cells of the epithelium changes the structure of language, what is connected with his pain, and sometimes the spinal cord is affected. In 1926 he was invited to this form of anemia raw liver, from which was subsequently isolated vitamin B12 – the main remedy for anemia Addison-Biermer.

Hemodyscrasia, expressed in the perversion of education in the bone marrow progenitor cells that form red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, leading to the development of hypoplastic and aplastic A. For hypoplastic A characteristic decrease in the number per unit volume of blood red cells, white cells and platelets. In this form of anemia have a therapeutic effect hormones (glucocorticoid and male sex hormones), sometimes – removal of the spleen. Also used bone marrow transplantation.

Hemolytic anemia caused by increased hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). Usually red blood cells live about 120 days. When the patient’s own antibodies against erythrocyte lifespan of red blood cells is much shorter. There is a rapid destruction of a large number of red blood cells due to the decaying of hemoglobin in patients are icteric staining tissues (jaundice). Developing immune hemolytic A., which is used to treat hormonal drugs (glucocorticoid hormones). Sometimes the birth of the child develops an acute hemolytic A., due to incompatibility of blood between mother and child (hemolytic disease of the newborn). Of hemolytic A. significant place hereditary forms. Their development is associated with a genetic dysfunction of enzymes involved in the formation of red blood cell membranes, or the accumulation of the energy necessary for their livelihoods and conservation of the shell.

In hereditary hemolytic anemia treatment effect sometimes makes removal of the spleen. In hereditary deficiency in the erythrocytes of certain enzymes (dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate, etc.) lose their ability to counteract the harmful effects on vital cell processes of individual drugs, certain foods and other substances. In these patients, after administration of even small doses of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), streptotsida, quinine, by eating certain legumes and even if swallowed pollen of these plants have severe hemolytic A., which is more common in people living in Africa, of the Mediterranean basin, and in the CIS countries – in the southern republics.

In those geographic areas are common hereditary anemia associated with violation of the synthesis of the protein hemoglobin. A. These forms are called hemoglobinopathies. Red blood cells in some forms of the disease have sickle-shaped (crescent A.), sometimes – the target (mishenevidnokletochnaya A.).

Treatment of all types of anemia can be conducted only after a precise diagnosis and form A.).

Disease – description level of health

Disease (болезнь) – a process that occurs as a result of effects on the malicious (emergency) stimulus external or internal environment, characterized by reduced adaptability of the living organism to the environment with simultaneous mobilization of its defenses. DiseaseThe disease manifests itself disequilibrium with the environment, are expressed in the occurrence of side (inadequate) reactions and a man – a decline to the illness of his disability.

The development of a common understanding of disease changed over the history of medicine. The ancient Greek physician and reformer of ancient medicine Hippocrates cause of the disease is considered misuse of mixing four basic body fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile (venous blood). Around the same time, based on the atomistic theory of ancient Greek materialist philosopher Democritus, the idea arose that the disease develops as a result of changes in the shape of atoms and their incorrect arrangement. At the end of the old and the beginning of a new era, and especially in the Middle Ages, idealistic views on the doctrine of the disease, according to which the soul or a special kind of life force (“Archean”), defines the struggle of the body to changes caused by boleznfmi.

Materialistic views on the disease in the Middle Ages developed by Ibn Sina (occurrence of the disease under the influence of invisible beings, the role of the constitution of the body). In the 17th – 19th centuries, a great contribution to the study of the disease have an Italian physician and anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni (the thought of illness due to anatomical changes in the organs), a French doctor, one of the founders of Pathological Anatomy and Histology, Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (description of the pathologic picture series diseases), the German pathologist Rudolf Virchow (theory of cellular pathology), C. Bernard (disease – a violation of physiological equilibrium with the environment) and other Russian therapist Sergei Petrovich Botkin, founder Viktor Pashutin Pathophysiology, Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and therapist Alexey Ostroumov disease associated with violation of the conditions of human existence and developed the idea of the disease on the basis of ideas nervism.

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Skin – description outer integument

Skin (hereinafter – the “S.”) – is the outer covering of the body of animals and humans, exercising functions of defense against external influences, as well as touch, metabolism (including gas exchange), excretion, sometimes thermoregulation. S. prevents penetration into the internal environment of microorganisms, toxins, mechanical damage, takes mechanical, thermal and painful effects, defines animal coloring, highlights odorous, toxic or nutritional substances serving signals in security or rearing of offspring.


The skin consists of an outer (epithelial) and internal (connective tissue) layers separated by a basal membrane and often forming numerous derivatives (see Fig. 1, 2, 3).

Skin insect


Fig. 1. The structure of the skin insect (scheme): 1 – epicuticle; 2 – exocuticle; 3 – epidermis; 4 – trihogennaya (hair) cell; 5 – connective cells; 6 – basement membrane of the epidermis; 7 – hair; 8 – endocuticle.


The skin of fish


Fig. 2. Structure of the skin bony fish (scheme): 1 – rich glandular cells of the epidermis; 2 – bony scales; 3 – connective tissue layer.

Mammalian skin


Fig. 3. Structure of the skin of a mammal (the scheme): 1 – hair; 2 – the horny layer of the epidermis; 3 – other layers of the epidermis; 4 – papillae of the outer layer of the dermis, jutting out into the epidermis; 5 – sebaceous glands; 6 – sweat glands; 7 – fatty subcutaneous tissue; 8 – reticular layer of the dermis.

Epithelial layer of a large diversity of single-or multi-cellular glands. Solid products of epithelial excretions may serve as skeletal and protective elements (shells of mollusks, enamel scales of sharks). Products of degeneration of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells form a chitinous shell – the skeleton of arthropods and body chemical and mechanical protection – the cuticle of parasitic worms to counter the activity of digestive enzymes of the host intestine. Unlike invertebrates, having a layer of cells in the epithelium, K., multilayered epithelium in vertebrates, and at the vertebrate cells of the outer layers are completely horny degenerate and form a constantly renewed horny layer of the epidermis (see Fig. 4), horny scales, hair, feathers, claws and more. Desquamation of horny cells helps to cleanse the skin of dirt.


Fig. 4. The structure of mammalian epidermis (the scheme): 1 – basal layer; 2 – layer ribbed; 3 – granular layer; 4 – shiny layer; 5 – horny layer; 6 – basement membrane; 7 – fiber papillary dermis; Н – the “grain” keratohyalin; Ф – fibrils; Я – the nucleus of cells; O – thorny process of cell layer.

Stratum corneum of higher vertebrates and arthropods chitinous shell allows many of them to withstand the withering work atmosphere in a terrestrial lifestyle. Hair and feathers, keeping body heat, contribute to some mammals and birds maintain active life even at t temperatures below 0° C. Connective tissue layer, or dermis, forming a network of collagen and elastin fibers that give skin strength and elasticity (in vertebrates, cephalopods), and other bone and scales (fish) and dermal ossification (reptiles), playing the role of armor.

In the adult area of the skin is 1.5-2 m2. The thickness of the various parts of the body varies from 0.5 to 4 mm. In the epithelial layer (epidermis) S. distinguish layers: basal, ribbed (comprising germ or Malpighian, layer), grainy, shiny and horny, and in the lower layers of the epidermis are sensitive. Exfoliated cells of the horny layer are replaced by shifts to the surface cells of the basal layer. So called layers – the stage of conversion (differentiation) of cells in the basal layer of the horn.

Differentiation is accompanied by a loss of the ability of cells to multiply and accumulation of fibrils prokeratina, that is the finest beams (50 – 80) filaments of fibrous protein with a molecular weight of about 640 000. Next, in close contact with the fibrils appear “grain” keratohyalin, ie clusters of fibrous protein. Their appearance is associated with accelerated synthesis prokeratina. Granular cells and brilliant layers include a large amount of sulfur-containing amino acids, and almost entirely filled with keratin and die off. Keratin filaments represented about 75 thick, immersed in an amorphous protein. Numerous SH-groups of molecules of keratin oxidation closed in intermolecular S – S-moctiki. Keratin is about 2/3 the weight of the stratum corneum cells and is characterized by high chemical resistance.

Complete upgrade of the epidermal cells is about 20 days. In most mammals, and humans epidermis forms sebaceous, sweat glands, mammary glands and hair. Secretion of sebaceous glands (sebum) lubricates the epidermis and hair, making them water-repellent. Sweat glands are involved in thermoregulation, allocating up to several liters of sweat per day, the evaporation from the surface of which K. removes excess heat and prevents overheating of the body. Since then leave the body and part of the products of metabolism, especially urea, which is of particular importance in renal disease.

The dermis distinguish two layers: papillary, adjacent to the epidermis, and the mesh and deeper. The first images of the different forms of papillae and ridges jutting into the epidermis and determine the design surface of the skin. Papillary layer, along with connective tissue cells contain a loose network of thin collagen and elastin fibers and smooth muscle fibers. Last involved in the regulation of heat transfer. Reticular layer of dense connective tissue before forming a network of relatively thick bundles of collagen and elastin fibers, oriented parallel to and at oblique angles to the surface of S. mesh layer immersed deep sections of hair follicles and glands.

The epidermis and dermis may contain pigment cells that protect the fabric from UV rays and give skin a different, some animals easily changed, painting. S. blood vessels in the deeper layers form a skin arterial network, from which depart the vessels in the surface layer. The lymphatic system consists of true lymphatic vessels in the papillary dermis associated with papillar and subcutaneous lymphatic network.

A huge number of sensory nerve endings located in S., provides quick response to the changing external environment. On 1 cm2 of skin surface pain points is 100 – 200, tactile sensitivity – 25, cold – 12 – 15 and the heat – 1-2. The greatest sensitivity is S. palmar surface, the fingertips and the tip of the nose. S. surface, especially at the fingertips, covered a complex pattern, which is strictly individual and age does not change (on this property based skin forensic science – fingerprinting).

One of the main functions of human skin – thermoregulation. About 80% of the heat transfer occurs through S. convection, evaporation and radiation. S. diffuse through almost all gases. However, skin respiration (oxygen and removing carbon dioxide) is only 1 – 1.5% of the total gas exchange.

Plays a significant role in skin metabolism – water-salt, carbohydrate, protein, enzyme, etc. Through S. absorbed some substances that are soluble in fats and volatile liquids, based on what the effect of certain drugs used topically, and ointments. S. inseparably linked with the life of the whole body – the various dysfunctions of organs and systems often affect the state S. (itching, burning, redness, rashes and other reactions), and, conversely, the disease S. cause a reaction of the body (for example, burn disease ).