Category: Disease

Ophthalmia – a description of the disease

Ophthalmia (the word comes from the Greek bl?nnos – mucus and rh?? – current, hereinafter – “O.”) – an acute purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane (conjunctiva), eye, caused by gonococcus.


There are 2 forms of ophthalmia: newborns and adults. Infection in most cases, neonatal ophthalmia occurs during the passage of the fetal head through the birth canal of the mother with gonorrhea. O. appears on 2 – 3rd day of life and is characterized by a very strong first edema of both eyelids after 2 – 3 days begins copious pus. In severe cases, the process may be involved in the cornea, formed ulcer healing scar and leave a thorn. In some cases, the disease leads to blindness.

Sometimes occurs in newborns like illness Infections caused by a virus. It develops, in contrast to O., not before the 5th day of life and flows more slowly and less severely, the cornea in the process is never involved.

Infection ophthalmia adults occurs when entering the eye with gonococcal urogenital hands, household items by patients suffering from gonorrhea. O. in adults is more severe than in infants, usually affected only one eye.

Treatment: frequent eye wash with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, antibiotics.

Prevention: the fight against gonorrhea urogenital tract. Newborn immediately after birth for ever let in both eyes, one drop of a 2% solution of silver nitrate or penicillin for adults – good personal hygiene. When a unilateral process is very important to prevent other eye disease [ru], for which the healthy [ru] eye pressure garment to wear a watch glass.

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Anemia – a description of the disease

Anemia (derived from the Greek an – negative particle and h?ima – blood, hereinafter – “A.”) – is anemia, a group of diseases characterized by reduced hemoglobin content in red blood cells (dye blood carries oxygen), the number of red blood cells per unit volume human blood given gender and age, and the total weight of blood in the human body. AnemiaA number of causes painful changes due to impaired supply of oxygen. The intensity of these symptoms depends on the degree of anemia and on the speed of its development.

The most important general symptoms of anemia – fatigue, pale skin, shortness of breath, dizziness, tendency to faint. A. caused by three main factors: blood loss, impaired hematopoiesis, and increased kroverazrushenie.

A. associated with acute blood loss develops with wounds, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, nasal, uterine, less renal hemorrhage. A. At this suddenly appear sharp pallor, dizziness, tinnitus, thirst. It will not be life-threatening conditions, one should immediately stop bleeding that often requires surgical intervention, use styptics, blood transfusions.

A common cause of anemia – deficiency in iron, so iron is called A. Iron is part of hemoglobin and red blood cell enzymes involved in cellular respiration and is almost out of the body. Iron deficiency is caused by a small, but frequent blood loss (heavy and prolonged menstrual periods, bleeding hemorrhoids, etc.). A. very often this develops, if chronic blood loss combined with reduced secretion of gastric juice, which can reduce the absorption of iron in food. A. iron deficiency often occurs in children in the first year if the mother lacked the iron in the body. A. the same form is sometimes found in premature infants who did not manage to obtain the necessary amount of iron from the mother. A. iron deficiency may develop during puberty in girls born to mothers with iron deficiency in the body – juvenile chlorosis (“chlorosis” greensickness). For chlorosis, in addition to general attributes, A., characteristic hair loss, brittle nails, taste perversion (the desire to eat chalk, tooth powder, coal, slate from pencils), micturition disorders (bed wetting, frequent urge to urinate). Treatments for iron A. conduct various preparations of iron in combination with ascorbic acid (in this combination are better absorbed).

There are forms of anemia in which the body enough iron, but it is not fully used for the formation of hemoglobin due to the decreased activity of enzymes that form hemoglobin (sideroahresticheskaya A.). A. These are hereditary or associated with lead poisoning. When these forms of A. has a curative effect vitamin B6. Treats lead poisoning. Violation of blood formation is observed with a deficiency of vitamin B12 (vitamin deficiency B12, anemia Addison – Biermer, old name – A pernicious, pernicious anemia). A. the reason for this – a violation of the stomach making a special protein – gastromukoproteina (biermerin) providing intestinal absorption of vitamin B12. A lack of vitamin B12 in the body may be in patients who in the past has been removed the entire stomach, and also in patients with parasitic infestations, particularly broad tapeworm. When B12 vitamin deficiency in the body is disturbed formation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) needed for cell reproduction. As a result of broken blood, red blood cells increase in size, their number in blood volume decreases. Due to the increase of the epithelial cells of the epithelium changes the structure of language, what is connected with his pain, and sometimes the spinal cord is affected. In 1926 he was invited to this form of anemia raw liver, from which was subsequently isolated vitamin B12 – the main remedy for anemia Addison-Biermer.

Hemodyscrasia, expressed in the perversion of education in the bone marrow progenitor cells that form red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, leading to the development of hypoplastic and aplastic A. For hypoplastic A characteristic decrease in the number per unit volume of blood red cells, white cells and platelets. In this form of anemia have a therapeutic effect hormones (glucocorticoid and male sex hormones), sometimes – removal of the spleen. Also used bone marrow transplantation.

Hemolytic anemia caused by increased hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). Usually red blood cells live about 120 days. When the patient’s own antibodies against erythrocyte lifespan of red blood cells is much shorter. There is a rapid destruction of a large number of red blood cells due to the decaying of hemoglobin in patients are icteric staining tissues (jaundice). Developing immune hemolytic A., which is used to treat hormonal drugs (glucocorticoid hormones). Sometimes the birth of the child develops an acute hemolytic A., due to incompatibility of blood between mother and child (hemolytic disease of the newborn). Of hemolytic A. significant place hereditary forms. Their development is associated with a genetic dysfunction of enzymes involved in the formation of red blood cell membranes, or the accumulation of the energy necessary for their livelihoods and conservation of the shell.

In hereditary hemolytic anemia treatment effect sometimes makes removal of the spleen. In hereditary deficiency in the erythrocytes of certain enzymes (dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate, etc.) lose their ability to counteract the harmful effects on vital cell processes of individual drugs, certain foods and other substances. In these patients, after administration of even small doses of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), streptotsida, quinine, by eating certain legumes and even if swallowed pollen of these plants have severe hemolytic A., which is more common in people living in Africa, of the Mediterranean basin, and in the CIS countries – in the southern republics.

In those geographic areas are common hereditary anemia associated with violation of the synthesis of the protein hemoglobin. A. These forms are called hemoglobinopathies. Red blood cells in some forms of the disease have sickle-shaped (crescent A.), sometimes – the target (mishenevidnokletochnaya A.).

Treatment of all types of anemia can be conducted only after a precise diagnosis and form A.).

Disease – description level of health

Disease (болезнь) – a process that occurs as a result of effects on the malicious (emergency) stimulus external or internal environment, characterized by reduced adaptability of the living organism to the environment with simultaneous mobilization of its defenses. DiseaseThe disease manifests itself disequilibrium with the environment, are expressed in the occurrence of side (inadequate) reactions and a man – a decline to the illness of his disability.

The development of a common understanding of disease changed over the history of medicine. The ancient Greek physician and reformer of ancient medicine Hippocrates cause of the disease is considered misuse of mixing four basic body fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile (venous blood). Around the same time, based on the atomistic theory of ancient Greek materialist philosopher Democritus, the idea arose that the disease develops as a result of changes in the shape of atoms and their incorrect arrangement. At the end of the old and the beginning of a new era, and especially in the Middle Ages, idealistic views on the doctrine of the disease, according to which the soul or a special kind of life force (“Archean”), defines the struggle of the body to changes caused by boleznfmi.

Materialistic views on the disease in the Middle Ages developed by Ibn Sina (occurrence of the disease under the influence of invisible beings, the role of the constitution of the body). In the 17th – 19th centuries, a great contribution to the study of the disease have an Italian physician and anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni (the thought of illness due to anatomical changes in the organs), a French doctor, one of the founders of Pathological Anatomy and Histology, Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (description of the pathologic picture series diseases), the German pathologist Rudolf Virchow (theory of cellular pathology), C. Bernard (disease – a violation of physiological equilibrium with the environment) and other Russian therapist Sergei Petrovich Botkin, founder Viktor Pashutin Pathophysiology, Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and therapist Alexey Ostroumov disease associated with violation of the conditions of human existence and developed the idea of the disease on the basis of ideas nervism.

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